Emociones políticas en la diplomacia multilateral: las ONG en la lucha contra el cambio climático y la protección de los derechos humanos


  • Pavel Solís López

Palabras clave:

emociones políticas, diplomacia multilateral, ONG, cambio climático, derechos humanos


Este artículo tiene como objetivo desarrollar la relación entre las emociones políticas y el trabajo de las ONG en la lucha contra el cambio climático y la protección de los derechos humanos en el ámbito de la diplomacia multilateral. El artículo indaga el rol de las ONG en la diplomacia multilateral y la integración de las emociones políticas en la diplomacia y su uso por las ONG para sus estrategias de acción climática y de derechos humanos. Como conclusión se señala que las emociones políticas pueden emplearse estratégicamente para respaldar la cooperación y la resolución de problemas complejos en diplomacia. Además, sirven como una herramienta que cataliza la cooperación, las corrientes de opinión y la movilización emocional.


Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.


org (24 de enero 2023) Financiamiento del gobierno brasileño hacia el gasoducto argentino Néstor Kirchner «es una vergüenza binacional», afirma 350.org. 350.org. Recuperado el 19 de abril 2023 de https://350.org/es/press-release/financiamiento-del-gobierno-brasilenohacia-el-gasoducto-argentino-nestor-kirchner-es-una-verguenzabinacional-afirma-350-org/

Abello-Colak, A. (2019) Untrusted democracies and failing security strategies: crises that refocus democratic governance in Latin America and the Caribbean. British Academy Review, (September). 33 - 38. http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/100781/

Anheier, H. & Toepler, S. (2019). Policy Neglect: The True Challenge to the Nonprofit Sector. Nonprofit Policy Forum, 10(4), 20190041. https://doi.org/10.1515/npf-2019-0041

Alonso, A. (15 de abril 2023). La emergencia migratoria de Meloni, un peligroso precedente en Europa. El Independiente. https://www.elindependiente.com/internacional/2023/04/15/la-emergenciamigratoria-de-meloni-un-peligroso-precedente-en-europa/.

Amnesty International. (2019). Laws Designed to Silence: The Global Crackdown on Civil Society Organizations. Amnesty International. Recuperado el 25 de marzo 2023 de https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/act30/9647/2019/en/

Amnesty International (2021) What we do. Amnesty International. Recuperado el 25 de marzo 2023 de https://www.amnesty.org/en/what-we-do/

Arianti, F. (11 de noviembre 2021). Forestry giant Sinar Mas attempts to criminalize farm workers amidst COP26. Rainforest Action Network. Recuperado el 15 de abril 2023 de https://www.ran.org/the-understory/farmworkers-criminalized-in-indonesia

Batterbury, S. P., & Fernando, J. L. (2006). Rescaling governance and the impacts of political and environmental decentralization: an introduction. World Development, 34(11), 1851-1863. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.11.019

Brader T. & Marcus G. E. (2013). Emotions and political psychology. En L. Huddy, Sears D. O. & Levy J. S. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of political psychology (pp. 384–401). Oxford University Press.

Brinkerhoff, D. W. (1999). Exploring state–civil society collaboration: policy partnerships in developing countries. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28 (1_suppl), 59-86. https://doi.org/10.1177/089976409902801S01

Burke, S. (2014). What an era of global protests says about the effectiveness of human rights as a language to achieve social change. SUR International Journal on Human Rights, 11 (20) 27-33. https://sur.conectas.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/11/sur20-en-full.pdf#page=24

Chowdhury, S. R., Wahab, H. A., & Islam, M. R. (2018). The role of faith-based NGOs in social development: Invisible empowerment. International Social Work, 62 (3), 1055–1074. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020872818767260.

Chun, J. (2022). Understanding Mistrust and Instability in East Asia. Pacific Affairs, 95(3), 595-604. https://doi.org/10.5509/2022953595

Colomina, C. (2022) The world in 2023: ten issues that will shape the international agenda. CIDOB. Recuperado el 4 de marzo 2023 de https://www.cidob.org/en/publications/publication_series/notes_internacionals/283/the_world_in_2023_ten_issues_that_will_shape_the_international_agenda

Cornut, J. (2022). Emotional Practices and How We Can Trace Them: Diplomats, Emojis, and Multilateral Negotiations at the UNHRC. International Studies Quarterly, 66(3), sqac048. https://doi.org/10.1093/isq/sqac048

Cull, N. J. (2019). The tightrope to tomorrow: Reputational security, collective vision and the future of public diplomacy. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 14(1-2), 21-35. https://doi.org/10.1163/1871191X-14011014

De Coning, C. & Peter, M. (2019). United Nations peace operations in changing global order. Springer Nature.

DeMars, W. E. (2005). NGOs and transnational networks: Wild cards in world politics. Pluto Press.

Demur, A. B. (10 de marzo 2023). 105 rescatados por el barco de Emergency. Euronews. https://es.euronews.com/2023/03/10/105-rescatadospor-el-barco-de-emergency-italia-desbordada-por-la-llegada-demigrantes

Dichter, T. W. (1999). Globalization and its effects on NGOs: Efflorescence or a blurring of roles and relevance? Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 28(1), 38–58. https://doi.org/10.1177/089976499773746429

Di Martino, L. (2021). Fear and empathy in international relations: Diplomacy, cyber engagement and Australian foreign policy. Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1057/s41254-021-00211-9.

Dryden-Peterson, S. (2009). Barriers to accessing primary education in conflict-affected fragile states. Save the Children. Recuperado el 30 de marzo 2023 de https://wcfia.harvard.edu/files/wcfia/files/2942.pdf

Duncombe, C. (2019). Digital Diplomacy: Emotion and Identity in the Public Realm. The Hague Journal of Diplomacy 14(1-2), 102-116. https://doi.org/10.1163/1871191X-14101016

Dupuy, K., & Prakash, A. (2020). Global backlash against foreign funding to domestic nongovernmental organizations. En W. Powell & P. Bromley (Eds.), The nonprofit sector: A research handbook (3ra ed., pp. 618–630). Stanford University Press.

Dupuy, K., Fransen, L., & Prakash, A. (2021). Restricting NGOs: From pushback to accommodation. Global Policy, 12, 5-10. https://doi.org/10.1111/1758-5899.12974

Freedom House (2023, Marzo 28). 2023 Summit for democracy. Freedom House. Recuperado el 18 de abril 2023 de https://freedomhouse.org/2023/summit-for-democracy/political-prisoners#Civil.

Holmes, M., & Yarhi-Milo, K. (2017). The psychological logic of peace summits: How empathy shapes outcomes of diplomatic negotiations. International Studies Quarterly, 61(1), 107-122. https://doi.org/10.1093/isq/sqw034.

Ilgit, A., & Prakash, D. (2019). Making human rights emotional: a research agenda to recover shame in “naming and shaming”. Political Psychology, 40(6), 1297-1313. https://doi.org/10.1111/pops.12616

Influence Watch. (25 de agosto 2017). Human Rights Watch. Influence Watch. Recuperado el 31 de marzo 2023 de https://www.influencewatch.org/non-profit/human-rightswatch/

Keohane, R. O., & Nye, J. S. (2012). Power and interdependence. En R. K. Betts (Ed.), Conflict after the Cold War: Arguments on causes of war and peace (4ta ed., pp. 174-181). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315664484

Kurbalija, J. (18 de abril 2023). 12 digital governance and diplomacy trends for 2023. Diplo. https://www.diplomacy.edu/blog/2023-digital-governance-predictions/

Latinobarómetro (2021). Informe 2021. Adiós a Macondo. Corporación Latinobarómetro. Recuperado el 1 de abril 2023 de https://www.latinobarometro.org/latContents.jsp

Lewis, D. (2014). Non-governmental organizations, management and development. Routledge.

Lewis, D. (2019). ‘Big D’ and ‘little d’: two types of twenty-first century development? Third World Quarterly, 40(11), 1957-1975. https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2019.1630270

Liboreiro, J. (6 de febrero 2023). “Es una vergüenza”, las ONG italianas contra el código de conducta para barcos. Euronews. https://es.euronews.com/my-europe/2023/02/06/es-una-verguenza-las-ong-italianas-contra-el-codigo-de-conducta-para-barcos

Lück, J., Wozniak, A., & Wessler, H. (2016). Networks of coproduction: How journalists and environmental NGOs create common interpretations of the UN climate change conferences. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 21(1), 25-47. https://doi.org/10.1177/1940161215612204.

Maizland, L. (18 de abril 2023). Why China-Taiwan relations are so tense. Council on Foreign Relations. Recuperado el 19 de abril 2023 de https://www.cfr.org/backgrounder/china-taiwan-relations-tension-us-policy-biden

Miller, M. C. (8 de diciembre 2022). Visualizing 2023: Trends to watch. Council on Foreign Relations. Recuperado el 19 de abril 2023 de https://www.cfr.org/article/visualizing2023-trends-watch

Murdie, A., Davis, D. R., & Park, B. (2020). Advocacy output: Automated coding documents from human rights organizations. Journal of human rights, 19(1), 83-98. https://doi.org/10.1080/14754835.2019.1671173

Narváez, S. O. (2020). Cultura y estructura organizativa de una ONG desde la ideología indigenista de la Federación Plurinacional de Turismo Comunitario del Ecuador (FEPTCE). Sociologías del Trabajo, 96, 73-83. https://doi.org/10.5209/stra.67431

Nguyen, T. A., & Luong, T. T. (2020). Corruption, shadow economy and economic growth: Evidence from emerging and developing Asian economies. Montenegrin Journal of Economics, 16(4), 85–96. https://doi.org/10.14254/1800-5845/2020.16-4.7

Nussbaum, M. C. (2013). Political emotions. Harvard University Press.

Nye, J. S., & Keohane, R. O. (1971). Transnational relations and world politics: An introduction. International organization, 25(3), 329-349. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0020818300026187

OHCHR. (2020) Mandatory human rights due diligence (mHRDD). Oficina del Alto Comisionado de las Naciones Unidas para los Derechos Humanos. Recuperado el 7 de abril 2023 de https://www.ohchr.org/sites/default/files/Documents/Issues/Business/MandatoryHR_Due_Diligence_Issues_Paper.pdf

Pagden, A. (1998). The genesis of ‘governance’ and Enlightenment conceptions of the cosmopolitan world order. International Social Science Journal, 50(155), 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2451.00105

Pursiainen, C. & Forsberg, T. (2021). Relations of trust and mistrust. En C. Pusiainen & T. Forsberg (Eds.), The Psychology of Foreign Policy (pp. 299-336). Palgrave Macmillan https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-79887-1_8

Qin, Y., Harrison, J., & Chen, L. (2019). A framework for the practice of corporate environmental responsibility in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 235, 426-452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.06.245

REDEDELP MUNDIAL, (2019). Las ONG ante los objetivos de desarrollo sostenible. Red Española del Pacto Mundial. https://www.pactomundial.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/05/Las-ONG-ante-los-Objetivos-deDesarrollo-Sostenible.pdf

Safranchuk, I. A. (2022). Empathy Is the Best Strategy for Diplomacy. Russia in Global Affairs, 20(2), 54-64. https://doi.org/10.31278/1810-6374-2022-20-2-54-64

Sundstrom, L. M. (2006). Funding civil society: Foreign assistance and NGO development in Russia. Stanford University Press.

Swidler, A., & Watkins, S. C. (2017). A Fraught Embrace: The Romance and Reality of AIDS Altruism in Africa. Princeton University Press.

Thew, H., Middlemiss, L., & Paavola, J. (2021). Does youth participation increase the democratic legitimacy of UNFCCC-orchestrated global climate change governance? Environmental Politics, 30(6), 873-894. https://doi.org/10.1080/09644016.2020.1868838

Toepler, S., Zimmer, A., Fröhlich, C., & Obuch, K. (2020). The changing space for NGOs: Civil society in authoritarian and hybrid regimes. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organizations, 31, 649-662. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11266-020-00240-7

Toepler, S., Zimmer, A., Levy, K., & Fröhlich, C. (2022). Beyond the partnership paradigm: Toward an extended typology of government/nonprofit relationship patterns. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 08997640221112890. https://doi.org/10.1177/08997640221112890

Trazegnies Granda, F. (2019). A los 20 años de la paz. En F. Novak et al. (Eds.), El proceso de negociaciones entre el Perú y el Ecuador (1995-1998) y los 20 años de los Acuerdos de Paz de Brasilia (pp. 129-135). Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores del Perú, Instituto de Estudios Internacionales PUCP y Konrad Adenauer Stiftung.

Tysiachniouk, M., Tulaeva, S., & Henry, L. A. (2018). Civil society under the law ‘on foreign agents’: NGO strategies and network transformation. Europe-Asia Studies, 70(4), 615–637. https://doi.org/10.1080/09668136.2018.1463512

Viterna, J., Clough, E., & Clarke, K. (2015). Reclaiming the “third sector” from “civil society”: A new agenda for development studies. Sociology of Development, 1(1), 173–207. https://doi.org/10.1525/sod.2015.1.1.173

Walker, H. (2022). What Drives Trust in Chairs of Multilateral Negotiations? Rational, Relational, Reputational, and Emergent Trust: A Multidimensional Model. Journal of Global Security Studies, 7(3), ogac002. https://doi.org/10.1093/jogss/ogac002

Wang, L., Li, W., & Qi, L. (2020). Stakeholder pressures and corporate environmental strategies: A meta-analysis. Sustainability, 12(3), 1172. https://doi.org/10.3390/su12031172

Wellner, T. (2023, Febrero 08). Ten global topics and trends to watch in 2023. Controlrisks.com. Recuperado el 18 de abril de 2023 de https://www.controlrisks.com/our-thinking/insights/ten-global-topics-trends

West, K. (2017). Agents of Altruism: The Expansion of Humanitarian NGOs in Rwanda and Afghanistan. Routledge.

Wollebæk, D., Karlsen, R., Steen-Johnsen, K., & Enjolras, B. (2019). Anger, fear, and echo chambers: The emotional basis for online behavior. Social Media+ Society, 5(2), 2056305119829859. https://doi.org/10.1177/2056305119829859

Zelko, F. (2019). From social movement to environmental behemoth: How Greenpeace got big. En J. Clapperton & L. Piper (Eds.) Activism on the Ground: Small Green and Indigenous Organizing (pp. 289-313). University of Calgary Press




Cómo citar

Solís López, P. (2023). Emociones políticas en la diplomacia multilateral: las ONG en la lucha contra el cambio climático y la protección de los derechos humanos. Política Internacional, (133), 49–69. Recuperado a partir de https://midepa.pe/index.php/RPI/article/view/70